Once upon a time, in a faraway place, bad things happened. First there was a big war that lasted for five years [1914-1919], then twenty years later another war that lasted for five years [1939-1945]. Then people invented robots that invented subways,  and that made things a little bit better. Until on another fateful day, there was a tragedy in Manhattan .
62 years . . .
The invention of subways
“Jessica, how are you?”
“Good. Um, how are you?”
“Chillin,” I said.
“That’s good. Good that you’re chillin.”
“I think so too, I really do.”
“Well, we should all be chillin.”
“Yeah, that would make this nation even better.”
“What do you mean better? Don’t we live in the best of all possible worlds?”
“Get that Candide out of here you fool.”
discourse: conversation; discussion; dialogue; argument; the way the narrator tells story; collective works of a conversation/topic / “genre”
story: a narrative; who;what;when;where—events happening in sequence; series of events; from character sense of time/events
Red Riding Hood
1. Little Red’s mom tells her Grandma’s sick, and you need to take her these cookies.
2. Little Red on her way to Grandma’s house
3. She meets the wolf in the forest on the way to Grandma’s.
4. Little Red tells the wolf that she’s going to her Grandma’s house.
- Wolf goes to Grandma’s to beat Little Red there.
- Wolf gets inside house and eats Grandma
- Then wolf disguises himself as Grandma wearing Grandma’s clothes
- Little Red arrives with the cookies
- Little Red notices that Grandma looks different
10. Repetition: what big eyes you have / the better to see you with (my dear); . . . what big teeth you have / THE BETTER TO EAT YOU WITH
- Wolf tries to eat her and Little Red gets running
- Woodcutter shows up, and he saves Little Red by killing the wolf
- Woodcutter slices wolf in half and Grandma pops out
History / truth
- “hidden narrator” who tells the story from the beginning/ overt narrator: narrator’s not in the main action of the story, but still a character in the book OR
- character that Cervantes creates for himself
“meta” moment in narration: the story of the composition of the story: the discovery of the Arabic manuscript
a text within the text . . .
matrix narrative: the story the created by the author
within matrix there are embedded narratives (hyponarratives): different stories but within the matrix story, or the general framework
The narrator is not a character in the literal sense, but he has character: he praises the story of Don Quixote
Pg. 76: “any objections to the truth of this history”
The narrator has opinions, suggesting that this third-person narrator is not objective; opinions are subjective, but he implies that his subjective take is the objective take
“I know”: overt
Pg. 73: “delightful history”
“excellent knight” (but also not really a knight)
pg. 74: “Don Quixote is worthy of [. . . ] praise”
solidifying the fact that the narrator is doing “valuable” research
Chapter XV: “mating horses”
Parallels between characters:
Rocinante: described in a way like his horse, “abandonment” (116).
Pg. 117: groaning Sancho; brought down by his master;
“Foil character”: his inferiority is used to highlight DQ’s superiority as knight (119)
focalization: main focalizor is the narrator: who speaks? External focalization, but bounces to internal when characters jump in . . .
Time: at beginning it’s slow, but at 116-117 time speeds up because of dialogue.
Chapter begins during day, ends in evening, five hours pass?
Chapter XVII, pg. 129
DQ and SP using the magic potion; potion works for DQ but not SP; DQ tells Sancho that the reason it works for him is because he’s a knight, and it won’t work for Sancho because he’s not a knight.
Sancho’s upset that DQ keeps dragging him into such misadventures . . .
Character/discourse: DQ is an unreliable narrator, and Sancho is more reliable
Chapter begins with narrator speaking, told in past tense
When characters speak, it’s in present tense
Narrator: reliable or not?
3rd person narrator, covert: narrator sees and reports events:
who sees the same things as the narrator?
characters see same thing, but have different POVs
DQ: might be more reliable because his insanity is consistent
Sancho: might be less reliable because he’s consistently an idiot: Sancho’s questions events