Class Notes, 7 June 2011

 “She Lived in a Story” (continued)


1st person / 3rd person

–I/she, an additional narrative POV, focalization on a different level

–levels of narration: heterodiegetic narrator: means taking narrator out of story, not character in the story

–a matter of being Ophelia or being with Ophelia

–when from story to I?

“I write that he writes a story that I live in” (60).

–She’s the author, she’s writing the story about him writing a story, and she’s the character

–“In one way or other actors live in their text”: she lives in what she writes; she needs G Segovia as a medium because she needs something in between reality and fiction

–she’s writing about her life as a writer, and the life is created by her by G Segovia

–this is Samperio’s way of distinguishing characters from real people: Samperio is a real person, and she can’t write about him because she’s a character; a distinction between fictional discourse and reality

–Samperio is fictional, and is in our world, but maybe our world is imaginary; and that’s why she writes in the present tense

–Ophelia is a character and she’s aware she’s a character and she can move the POV, while Segovia, but he’s not aware he’s a character, she’s aware she’s being watched, but Segovia’s not aware he’s being watched.

–She’s assertive, so this might make her seem like she’s not a character: she has “agency”

Shifts of POV

–last paragraph has lots of PsOV, they change from one sentence to another

–The more shifts of POV in a narrative, results in confusion in who speaks, and who speaks as official narrator

–we confused with POV, but at the beginning and the end, POV is less confusing, and the POV of the author is the ultimate reality


Jahn: “Narratology: A Guide to the Theory of Narrative”

According to Jahn . . . “dad a” (N2.4).

What is a narrative:

–a story

–a sequence of events: they could be out of synchrony

–it has characters, and usually a protagonist

–it’s the who, what, when, where . . .

–needs a narrator

“a narrative is a form of communication which presents a sequence of events caused and experienced by characters.”

She went home, and she ate an apple. A narrative? Yes.


Covert: hidden

Overt: not trying to be hidden

Focalization: from photography


–presenting something from a POV

–specific into a perspective, for example narrator, or character

  1. focalization; is the process
  2. focalizor—the entity or presence which sees
  3. focalized—that which is seen
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